Titanic and the People on Board: A Look at the Media Coverage of the Passengers After the Sinking Andrea Bijan Western Oregon University, [email protected]
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Titanic and the People on Board: A Look at the Media Coverage of the Passengers After the Sinking
2 The Titanic was originally called the ship that was “unsinkable” and was considered the most luxurious liner of its time. Unfortunately on the night of April 14, 1912 the Titanic hit an iceberg and sank early the next morning, losing many lives. The loss of life made Titanic one of the worst maritime accident in history. Originally having over 2,200 passengers and crew on board only about 700 survived; most of the survivors being from the upper class. Press from all over the United States covered the story to inform people of what had happened. Newspapers such as the East Oregonian, Morning Oregonian, and the Oregon City Enterprise, explained the event in a perspective that there was a greater loss in the first class because of the elite men that did not survive the sinking. Newspapers addressed many heroic acts done by the first class men on the night of the sinking that gave the society the impression that they went down with the ship in honor and as true gentlemen. The media coverage of the sinking depicts the economic and political elites who went down with the ship in a heroic manner and portrayed them as it was their honor and duty to sacrifice themselves in order to save women and children. There are many different sources that go into detail about the class system on the ship. The book titled, Voyagers of the Titanic: Passengers, Sailors, Shipbuilders, Aristocrats, and the Worlds They Came From, written by Richard Davenport-Hines, has a section dedicated to each of the classes on the ship. In the chapters about first and second class, the author explains what it meant for people during the early 20th century to be in the upper classes. Hines explains the lives that the upper class lived in luxury and then goes into detail about what benefits they had over the lower class people when on the ship. When talking about the first class, the author introduces many famous elite names of people that were on the ship. This class was considered one of the most important groups of people on the ship because they were in the public eye of America and in some parts of Europe during the era. The second class was still considered as important as the first; the only difference was the amount of money that was paid for a ticket to board the ship and the accommodations each group benefited from.
3 Hines then compares the difference between first and third class. Hines focuses on the third class’s perspective in another section in his book and brings up the argument of when a third class family was on the ship, it was considered the biggest luxury that they have ever had in their lives. People of a lower class usually could not afford something so luxurious. A majority of steerage passengers were workers such as maids, farmers, miners, etc. These were the typical occupations for the third class society to have during this time period. For most, it was a very luxurious trip to come to America on a grand ship. “The voyage seemed like a succession of saint’s festival days in which they had no burdensome task but every chance to enjoy themselves.”1 For most, it was their ticket to start a new life in America. In Titanic Names: A Complete List of the Passengers and Crew written by Lee W. Merideth gives the list of names, and other information of the passengers who did and did not survive. She states, “There were a total of 324 First Class, 283 Second Class, and 710 Third Class passengers.”2 Merideth presents the amount of first class passengers that were able to survive, and which lifeboat they were able to get into, if they boarded one. The document also shows the difference in men and women survivors in the first class. It is obvious between the differences of the amount of survivors of first versus third class.3 The treatment of how things were handled when the ship was sinking plays a huge role into who would be able to survive and who would not. From the information that she provides, she gives a theory that mentions that the first class men were only heroic because they did not have any other option. Merideth states, “The high loss of First Class male passengers is due more to selfish reasons than trying to be heroic…it could be that passengers chose to go down with the Titanic because they didn’t want to face a vengeful public.”4 Although Merideth explains a perspective that upper class men only went down with the ship in order to keep their “good name,” and that they had no other options 1
Richard Davenport-Hines, Voyagers of the Titanic: Passengers, Sailors, Shipbuilders, Aristocrats, and the Worlds They Came From, (Harper Collin Publishers, 2012), 159. 2 Lee W. Merideth, Titanic Names: A Complete List of the Passengers and Crew, (Rocklin Press, 2007), 3. 3 Merideth, Titanic Names, 4. 4 Merideth, Titanic Names, 4.
4 but to either perish with the ship or be looked down upon by the public as a coward. It should be noted that these men had an obligation to stand their ground in order to continue with their public appearance as good, civilized man. During the time the Titanic was being built, social classes were starting to develop. Social class became a huge part in American society during this time because it showed which people were successful, economically. There have been many arguments about the difference in the classes on board the ship. One of the historians that focused on this aspect on the Titanic is Steven Biel in his book Down with the Old Canoe: A Cultural History of the Titanic Disaster. One of the arguments that Biel presents is how first class men that perished were being perceived in newspaper articles days after the ship sank. "General accounts of gallantry were soon accompanied by anecdotes about the Titanic’s most famous victims: the financiers, merchants, and industrialists John Jacob Astor, Benjamin Guggenheim, Charles M. Hays, Isidor Straus, John B. Thayer, and George Widener.”5 Biel’s main argument focused on male passengers who were unable to board any lifeboats, and if they did they were considered lucky because the rule was to have women and children board the lifeboats before any man. Questions of whether or not men followed the status quo of the idealistic perception of true manhood. Historian Biel continues his argument saying, “Information that women and children had survived in much greater numbers than men suggested that the legendary rule of the sea—women and children first—had prevailed…A tale of first-cabin male heroism in which the men did not merely obey orders of blindly follow established codes of behavior but willingly engaged in chivalric self-sacrifice.”6 Biel’s argument presents the idea that it was the duty of a man, especially of upper class, that they should accept events that could happen to them in order to be considered heroic by being part of the definition of true manhood. Biel explains that the
Steven Biel, Down with the Old Canoe: A Cultural History of the Titanic Disaster (New York and London: W.W. Norton and Company, 1996), 25. 6 Biel, A Cultural History, 23.
5 newspapers at the time gave society the insight that the first class men that went down with the ship still stood as gentlemen when they faced their death. In the United States at the time, newspaper coverage was the way people saw other public figures in society. Historian Robert G. Davis describes in his article Understanding Manhood in America: The Elusive Quest for the Ideal in Masculinity what it was considered for a man to be a hero and why people wanted to interpret them as heroes: Heroes do not represent definable human figures, although it is our nature to want to imitate the qualities of the hero through the lives of men we have known or have read about. We want to worship our heroes. But what we actually seek is the mythological ideals to be achieved through heroism.7
This is true for the first class men that risked their lives in order to save other people on the Titanic. Media coverage gave the men an image of being heroic because they were able to live up to expectations of what it was considered to be a man. From Davis’s argument, people wanted to give the men that died, and some that lived, the persona of a hero because it is in human nature that in a tragic event, people find comfort in the idea that another person, mainly a man, was there to help others in a time of disaster. When addressing the topic of who had a greater chance at surviving the disaster, many historians argue that the wealthy had a higher chance than the lower class. In the book titled Titanic; The Death and Life of a Legend, by Michael Davie discusses the differences in class while the Titanic was sinking and after. At the beginning of a chapter, Davie states: In all disasters, it is fate of the rich and famous that attracts the most fascinated attention; and of this squalid but universal truth the Titanic is a glaring example. Like the poor on land, drowned steerage passengers have no history. Common humanity has little interest in knowing what happened to other common people like themselves; shocked by the reassurance from the knowledge that even the privileged can come to an untimely end.8 Davie argues that first class passengers were the center of public attention. He also mentions that lower class was an important class too but did not get as much attention from society. Davie 7
Robert G. Davis, “Understanding Manhood in America: The Elusive Quest for the Ideal in Masculinity,” Heredom 10 (2002): 9-33. 8 Mark Davie, Titanic: The Death and Life of a Legend, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1987), 44.
6 continues his argument that the people of lower class should not have been treated as just as numbers in the statistics, but should have been treated as people with their own perspective of the sinking.9 Davie shows a number next to the names of the upper class people that indicates their net worth: Colonel J.J. Astor…30 million, Mr. B Guggenheim…20 million, Mr. I. Straus…10 million, Mr. G. Wider…10 million.10
The information that is presented is somewhat shocking to Davie because coverage from newspapers primarily focused on the amount of wealth a person is worth and not focusing on the tragedy of the people that have died during the sinking. Newspapers that covered the story of the sinking gave society the impression that the main focus was on the rich population instead of the larger group of people, regardless of class, that lost their lives. When the story talks about the lower class and the rest of the people, there is nothing but a number attached to the story. The news articles focused mainly on first class; the public easily forgot about the lower class and their stories of survival or tragic end. Davie includes the statistics of the number of people, mainly men, which survived from each class. Percentages show that thirty-four percent of first class male passengers were saved and only twelve percent in third class were saved; which leads Davie arguing that a majority of the upper classes having a privileged treatment.11 Another historian, Ken Rossignol, argued that the upper class had a better chance at survival than the lower class did. “In spite of almost all the men listed above having perished in the Titanic, the notion that
7 somehow the rich were favored for escaping the sinking ship while the lower classes died continues to persist to this day.”12 When the Titanic started her maiden voyage on April 10, 1912, people already knew where they stood on the economic and social scale when they boarded the ship. A Titanic historian, Marlene Tromp states in her book, Untold Titanic: The True Story of Life, Death, and Justice, that “people had a sense of their ‘place,’ and passengers were ‘separated’ by class, either below a deck or they are separated by a bulkhead with doors in it; and when [a passenger] can get to the upper deck, there are certain spaces on the ship which are separated by rails.”13 The different levels of the ship created the idea of where the passengers belonged; mostly indicating the amount of money a person was able to spend on a ticket determined how the passenger would spend their time on the ship. In order for a person to be considered part of the first cabin passengers, the individual or family needed to have a large amount of income in order to pay for a ticket to be on the Titanic. The Titanic was planned to be a ship for all class types to travel to the United States. First class people were pampered, having their maids unpack their personal items into their cabins. These rooms were well decorated and had easy access to the dining rooms, other accommodations, and the boat deck. Depending on how much money a first class person paid for their ticket on the Titanic, they were given a spacious room that was completely furnished. The idea of the first class is that they were at the top of the economic chain, and were able to embody the “beau ideal of upper-class manliness, which was to be frank, fresh, and sporty and to live with a modest swagger.”14 Not only did the upper class have top of the line amenities, they also had the luxury of having many different options for dining experiences; which included wide variety of foods to 12
Ken Rossignol, Titanic 1912 (Privateer Clause Publishing Co 2012), chap. 12, para. 18, Kindle edition. Marlene Tromp, Untold Titanic: The True Story of Life, Death, and Justice, (BookBaby 2012), chap. 1, para. 22, Kindle edition. 14 Hines, Voyagers of the Titanic, p. 75. 13
8 choose from. Most of the higher crewmen of the Titanic, such as the captain Edward Smith, designer of the ship Thomas Andrews, the richest man on the ship John Jacob Astor, and White Star Lines director Bruce Ismay were among the people that were a part of the first class. During the meals “they chattered about new motors, new fashions, new restaurants, new health fads, and new marriages in a stifling, airtight atmosphere…and first class accommodations was filled to 46 percent of capacity.”15 These men, among other first class men, were under the public’s eye in able to enjoy the finer experiences in life on the ship. Among other sections of the ship, first class passengers enjoyed other activities such as a small fitness center, a swimming pool, and many various kinds of lounges; these were enjoyed by most of the first cabin passengers on a daily basis.16 Second class passengers were considered close in ranking to the first class, but did not have as many luxuries as the first class did. At the same time, second class was considered a step up from the steerage passengers. Most of the second class was made up of clergymen, teachers, hoteliers, engineers, shopkeepers, shop assistants, and clerks which was a class that was full of ‘well-to-do men.’17 These were considered well paid occupations of the time and made a decent amount of income in order to purchase a higher priced ticket. The second class was still considered high on the economic scale and was able to enjoy some of the same luxuries as first class. However, there was still a difference in treatment between the second and third class during certain times throughout the day while on the ship. It was known that there were signs throughout the ship where the doors that connected the second and third class decks in order to prevent people going from class to class.18 Third class passengers were treated as low as they were on the ship of Titanic and in society. They were forced to stay at the bottom of the ship for most of the journey. Their living
Hines, Voyagers of the Titanic, 76 and 83. Hines, Voyagers of the Titanic, 76. 17 Hines, Voyagers of the Titanic, 121 and 123. 18 Hines, Voyagers of the Titanic, 123. 16
9 quarters were normally one cabin room and had to share the room with up to four people. Everything in their living environment was smaller than what first and second class had; from the widows in the rooms to the beds that were similar to bunk beds. The steerage passengers were located at the bottom of the ship, right above the section where the crewman controlled Titanic’s speed and other mechanics. Since they were located at the bottom they did not have as easy access to the top deck as the first class passengers did. Space was tight, with little room to keep all of their belongings.19 Regardless of the amount of space they had, most of the people in third class remember their experience as luxurious because they were able to afford a ticket on the ship. For most, it was the biggest luxury experience that they ever had in their lifetime. While on board, they would pass the time by enjoying themselves by playing music, sing, and dance.20 Titanic was their way of knowing that a new life awaited them in America. Comparing the first and the third class shows that there was a difference in what each class was able to do as far as activities on the ship. Some steerage passengers enjoyed that they were able to experience Titanic because it was something that was new to them and their families. Their focus was getting to America to start a new life, whereas first class saw the Titanic as an opportunity to travel in luxury from one place to another. Even though it was not directly indicated, there was injustice and stereotypes being shown on the ship. Although, not all passengers indicated that this was an issue until the ship was in danger. From the first departure of the Titanic, social class rules remained the same; everyone was comfortable where they were on the ship within their own class. On the night of April 14, 1912, at around 11:40 pm, the Titanic was going almost full speed when the lookout men noticed an iceberg in the path where the ship was going. A testimony by one of the lookouts that survived, Frederick Fleet, explained what happened when the ship hit the iceberg. “I saw a black
Hines, Voyagers of the Titanic, 36. Davie, Titanic, 22.
10 object right ahead, high above the water. I struck three bells as soon as I saw it. Then I went straight to the telephone, and rang them up on the bridge. They said, ‘What do you see?’ I said, ‘Iceberg right ahead.’”21 Right away the officers on the top deck called down to the engine room for the crewmen down below to notify them to turn the ship. The Titanic was able to turn only slightly, but it was not enough to avoid the iceberg; it scraped up against the starboard side and along the bottom of the ship. Some of the survivors in each class can recall what they remembered when the ship struck with the iceberg. One of the Second Officers on board recalled: The impact is best described as a jar and a grinding sound. There was a slight jar followed by this grinding sound. It struck me we had struck something and then, thinking it was over, it was a feeling as if she may have hit something with her propellers, and I thought perhaps she had struck some obstruction with her propeller and stripped the blades off.22 In third class most of the passengers were closer to the impact zone many remembered waking to the violent shaking and scratching up against the metal of the Titanic. One steerage passenger, Daniel Buckley, recalled his experience in a letter that he wrote to his mother while on the ship Carpathia: I heard a terrible noise. I jumped out of bed and told my comrades there was something wrong, but they only laughed. I turned on the light and to my surprise there was a small amount of water running along the floor. I had only just dressed myself when the sailors came along shouting ‘All up on deck, unless you want to get drowned!’23 Once Titanic came to a stop after hitting the iceberg the crewmen and captain needed to decide what was best for the people on board to save them from drowning in the icy Atlantic Ocean. Thomas Andrews, the shipbuilder of the Titanic, went over calculations with the captain and other officers and estimated that the ship would sink in less than two hours. The ship was called
Nic Compton, Titanic on Trial: The Survivors’ Story from their Testimonies at the 1912 Inquiries, (London, Berlin, New York, Sydney: Bloomsbury, 2012), part 2, para. 2, Kindle edition. 22 Compton, Titanic on Trial, part 2, section 1085. 23 Senan Molony, Faces of the Titanic: Daniel Buckley was Saved After a Woman Hid Him in a Lifeboat, Irish Central, 14 April 2012, http://www.irishcentral.com/news/faces-of-the-titanic-daniel-buckley-wassaved-after-a-women-hid-him-in-a-life-boat-147442895-237441561.html.
11 the unsinkable because of Andrews latest ship building technology of having four out of five compartments could be filled with water and the ship could stay afloat. Andrews’s believed that if the ship were to get in an accident, it could still stay afloat as long as there were only four out of the five compartments filled.24 In the case of Titanic’s accident, all five compartments were filled with water and there was nothing that could be done in saving the ship from sinking. One of the first things that the officers and captain decided to do was to get the lifeboats ready and send out S.O.S. messages to other ships that could possibly be nearby. The Assistant Telegraphist, Harold Bride, was one of the last people in the telegraph room sending out distress signals. Some of the signals that Bride received back were from the ships the Olympic, Frankfurt, and Carpathia. From what Bride gathered, Frankfurt was closer because of the signal, but Carpathia was one of the only ships to respond in saying that they were coming at full speed to help.25 While the distress calls were being done, the crew started to prepare the lifeboats for loading. By this time many of the first class passengers were on the top deck with warm clothing and lifebelts, standing and waiting for further instructions from the captain and officers. Some accounts from the third class passengers recalled that there were gates that were closed so they could not get through to get to the upper decks where the lifeboats were. Daniel Buckley says in his testimony: They tried to keep us down at first on our steerage deck. They did not want us to go up to the First Class place at all…the gate was not locked at the time we made the attempt to get up there, but the sailor, or whoever he was, locked it. So this fellow went up and broke the lock on it. All the steerage passengers went up on the First Class deck then, when the gate was broken. They all got up there. They could not keep them down.26 Buckley’s testimony was one of many that talked about how things were handled the night of the sinking. With many different accounts that mention the treatment of the classes when on board 24
Wyn Craig Wade, The Titanic: End of a Dream, (New York: Penguin Books, 1979), 42. Compton, Titanic on Trial, part 2, section 1593. 26 Compton, Titanic on Trial, part 2, section 1481 and 1489. 25
12 and while the ship was sinking, it seems clear there was a difference in how things were handled the night of the sinking based on class status. After the sinking, survivors were asked to provide reports from what they remembered. One of the reports was written by a first class passenger, Dr. Washington Dodge who was on the Titanic with his family. In his document, he explains the events that followed the ship hitting the iceberg up to what he saw as far as treatment of passengers by the crew. Everything was calm between the crew telling the passengers what to do so he quickly took his family to the deck and put them in a lifeboat. Unlike some of the other men, he was able to get on a lifeboat after letting his family go on a different boat.27 His account is very brief, and he was one of the few lucky first class men that were able to board a lifeboat without being forced to get out. Davie brings up accounts of a first class passenger that had the same situation of how the crew was not worried at the beginning of when they tried to figure out what to do and what was happening to the ship. One survivor from third class says that he were separated from his family when trying to get on a lifeboat;28 it was not as calm as what Dodge had been through. There was fighting and pushing not only amongst men, but women trying to get in a lifeboat to save their lives. With limited amount of lifeboats on the ship, not all people aboard could get on one. Davie shows this in two different accounts, both were first class passengers. One woman claimed that she had no trouble finding a boat and did not experience any chaos as some of the men did.29 Most of the witness testimonies in court explained different scenarios of violence when the ship was sinking. Some survivors, mostly in first class, noted that they did not experience any
Washington Dodge, Eyewitness Account of the Sinking of the Titanic, Manuscript, The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, Gilder Lehrman Collection, http://www.scribd.com/doc/26776734/Titanic-survivor-Washington-Dodge-recounts-thesinking#fullscreen. 28 Davie, Titanic, 55-57. 29 Davie, Titanic, 52-54.
13 violence; whereas passengers in steerage experienced violence throughout the time the ship was sinking. After the sinking, the press covered the event right away having a focus on the first class men that did not survive. Newspapers all over the United States covered all aspects of the sinking, but most had the emphasis of who survived and who did not; most of the people being talked about in the papers were first class men. Newspapers from Oregon explained the event in what happened to the men that had an impact in the world.30 The newspaper Morning Oregonian mentioned the argument that the richer men were important to American society because they were a product of America. Titles of various articles within the paper included, “Seven On Ship Have Wealth,” in the article it reported the first class men that did not survive including a section on their wealth, and how their death became a damage in value for society. Numbers included mentioning the total loss of all the top first class men is a total worth of $1,000,000.31 The men that were mentioned in the article that was compared in the amount of money that was lost were John Jacob Astor, Isador Straus, Benjamin Guggenheim, and others.32 The article “Seven On Ship Have Wealth” from the Morning Oregonian and Davie have many similarities in this way by showing the difference of how men in each class, whether they survived or died, were perceived after the sinking of the Titanic. This is one of the reasons why there was an emphasis of the richer people who had died. But some people that were close to the wealthy first class passengers believed that they should have had first priority because of their status in the United States. Davie mentions this argument in his book saying: In the enclosed and temporary society of the great transatlantic liners it was logical that Colonel Astor, being the richest man on board, should be treated by everyone, not simply 30
It is important to note that when researching this topic, only bigger named newspapers were used. Smaller towns in Oregon had a small section, or nothing, on the topic of the Titanic. Bigger newspapers included what was believed to be a bigger part of society; which is why including famous first class men was a focus in these newspapers. 31 “Seven on Ship have Wealth,” Morning Oregonian, April 16, 1912, 7. 32 “Seven on Ship Have Wealth,” 7.
14 the White Star Line servants but by other passengers, by newspapers, and by newspaper readers, as the most significant and important. But there was more to that.33 Stories in the newspapers continued to come in to detail of the Titanic tragedy in terms of gender treatment between classes. Another Oregon newspaper, in Salem, the Daily Capital Journal noted, “It was evident that the Titanic’s officers had shown no preference in transferring women passengers to the Carpathia, the women in the steerage being given an equal chance with the wives of the millionaires in the first cabin.”34 This coverage showed that officers and crew of the Titanic did not show preference in how they would board the lifeboats in separation of class. This action was shown through the crew and other first class male passengers because they wanted to help board as many women onto the lifeboats as they could in order to save more lives. True manhood showed through in this situation when the Titanic was sinking because it was a man’s duty to help out in any way that they could. The different treatment between passengers regarding class and gender was covered by newspaper articles and noted by other survivors from the night. One of the perspectives that the United States had made was the understanding of what happened during the sinking from the passengers’ point of view. One author is able to show this in his journal article Voices Cast Upon the Sea: Minnesota’s Titanic Passengers written by Christopher G. Welter. In this article, Welter explains what different newspaper articles said about the treatment of passengers. Welter consulted Minnesota and discussed how newspapers portrayed the Titanic because there were many people that were on board the ship that were in all three classes. He noted how many of the steerage passengers were immigrants trying to start a new life in America, but since many of them perished in the sinking, they were unable to accomplish their goals for a better life. Welter states, What transpired that night in the North Atlantic was, and remains, a provocative, disquieting, and mesmerizing scenario: Although only a handful were aware of it, 2,20033 34
Davie, Titanic, 45. “Only 886 Saved,” Daily Capital Journal, April 16, 1912, 1.
15 plus people were engaged in a slowly evolving tragedy where only half, at best, might be saved due to a paucity of lifeboats. They had fewer than three hours to accept of amend their fate. What would they do?35
Highlighting what other historians say about the treatment between classes when the crew was trying to get people onto the lifeboats, Welter also noted, “one Titanic historian points out that, unacceptable through may be by current mores, ‘class distinctions were sharply drawn and sharply enforced’ in the prevailing culture of the time.”36 Later, inquiries were held in the United States and Europe, and testimony was very similar about difference in treatment of classes on the night of the sinking. When the U.S. was asked the question ‘Were third class passengers prevented from reaching the lifeboats?’ they responded that there was no preference of whether a person was in the upper class or lower class; it was mainly about getting as many women and children in the lifeboats first.37 The British inquires had answers similar to the U.S. inquiry but said that there was a chance that the third class passengers were treated unfairly. The British report also argues that there was no hard evidence supporting the fact of an unfair treatment among the classes. Some believed that the third class did not want to leave their belongings because it was too hard for the people to carry their personal items to the upper decks where the lifeboats were, and as a result the steerage passengers could have stayed in their cabins.38 Abraham Hyman, a third class passenger, recalled in his testimony that the night was hectic when trying to get to the top deck. “Ropes kept steerage back even farther on the deck than was usual, and that this obstacle helped create a panic—though, in this treatment, no distinction was made between classes.”39 There were not many third class passengers that
Christopher G. Welter, “Voices Cast Upon the Sea: Minnesota’s Titanic Passengers,” Minnesota History, Vol. 60, No. 7: (Fall 2007), JSTOR, 262. 36 Welter, Voices Cast Upon the Sea, 262. 37 Compton, Titanic on Trial, part 2, section 3250. 38 Compton, Titanic on Trial, part 2, section 3257. 39 Tromp, Untold Titanic, chapter 1, section 396 and 406.
16 survived the sinking which was rare to see any testimonies from them because there were very few that survived. Testimonies included nearly all the survivors from the Titanic tragedy. Along with other testimonies, some were put into newspapers in order to explain to the public of what the survivors witnessed. Many inquiries included how the passengers perceived mainly first class men helping other passengers aboard the lifeboats. Newspapers covered the Titanic tragedy from days and weeks after the sinking. Several newspapers showed the people who were considered heroes during the sinking. The theme of heroism is seen throughout an editorial in the Morning Oregonian that showed the men that died on the ship who gave up their lives in order to let the women and children on the lifeboats first. “If any man preferred to live basely rather than to die noble, it was one of the owners of the vessel. There was no panic, no bestial struggle for a place in the lifeboats.”40 The men that went down with the ship were considered heroes because they did not put their lives before others. This was looked upon by the public as what the definition of what was true gentleman. Editorials and other newspaper articles show this theme of true manhood throughout the various bigger city newspapers. One man that was depicted as a hero the night of the sinking was Major Archibald Willingham Butt. Butt was an American presidential aide to President Howard Taft and President Theodore Roosevelt. During the time he was on a vacation in Europe, and boarded the Titanic to come back to America.41 When he was not among the survivors on the lifeboats, the press was all over the story of what happened to Butt and what he did to help others. Newspapers such as the Daily Capital Journal in Salem, Oregon wrote an article about Major Butt. In a section of the newspaper titled “Americans and Heroes,” it stated, “It was Major Butt who lined up the panic stricken women, met the frenzy of despair with the cool, calm judgment of the
“Afterthoughts on the Titanic,” Morning Oregonian, Section 10, 20 April 1912, Print. Hines, p. 101.
17 soldier and was swept into the Valley of the Shadow of Death, unafraid.”42 This description of Butt gives readers the impression that he was the one that “came to the rescue” when disaster struck. It also shows that it was Butt’s duty to save the women and children and he thought about his safety last. The article also mentions that “Major Butt took charge of one section of the ship, forced those with the fear of death in their hearts to a semblance of courage by his own calmness and embarked all the women the boats would hold.”43 Other newspapers in larger areas that focused more on political and business issues, like Oregon City’s newspaper, The Oregon City Enterprise focused on the first class passengers that were economic and political elites in society. Major Archibald Butt and Colonel John Jacob Astor were mentioned together and shown as heroes that aided the women and children. The sub headlines of the paper give the picture of the two men as heroes saying phrases like “Men last seen standing on bridge with arms about each other…women and children aided by them” and others say “Heroes perish aiding women…Major Archibald Butt, Isidor Strauss and Colonel John Jacob Astor among cooler heads.”44 These types of headlines continued in other newspaper articles throughout the United States. Newspaper coverage about John Jacob Astor continued as the days past by focusing on both his heroism and his loss being something that affected business. One headline in the East Oregonian said “Astor and other millionaires are un-accounted for…their deaths would affect business.”45 Many bigger newspapers in the country had focused on Astor because he was a part of the bigger business industry in America. The loss of his life was considered a tragedy to the society because of the amount of money he was worth. The Morning Oregonian also focused on how Astor was never found from the wreckage. In the article titled, “Seven on Ship have Wealth 420 Millions,” it explained how Astor and other elites died aboard the ship, and not knowing
“American Heroes,” Daily Capital Journal, Section 5, 19 April 1912, Print. “American Heroes,” Daily Capital Journal, April 26, 1912, 5. 44 “Butt and Astor Die Like Soldiers,” Oregon City Enterprise, April 26, 1912, 1. 45 “1,492 Persons Believed Lost on Sunken Ship Titanic, East Oregonian, April 16, 1912, 1. 43
18 what happened to them. In the article it contained information about Astor and what the other wealthy first class people that did not survive were worth: Wealth aggregating something like $500,000,000 is represented by seven of the passengers on the Titanic. If calamity befell only a few of these men it would materially affect vast business enterprises in the United States and England…If the fortunes of the first class passengers alone were placed together they would easily make $1,000,000,000.46 Continuing the perception that Astor was still a hero during the event, the newspapers also said that he was a hero because he continued to help women board lifeboats when he knew that he could not, including helping his wife board a lifeboat. Along with the coverage of how he was a huge loss to society the East Oregonian gave Mrs. Astor’s opinion about the loss of her husband. She claimed that he was a brave man because he did not try to board the boat with her. The only thing that he could do was kiss his wife goodbye and put her on a boat, saving her life and losing his.47 One of the couples that were in the first class that did not survive the sinking was Mr. and Mrs. Isadore Strauss. Isadore Straus was the owner of Macys in the United States and coming back from a vacation in Europe with his wife Ida. The couple had been with each other for many years and when the Titanic started sinking, like many other first class passengers, the couple went to the top deck waiting to board a lifeboat. The crewman refused Mr. Straus from boarding the lifeboat and tried to have Mrs. Straus board. Colonel Archibald Gracie, a first class male that survived the sinking, was a witness to what happened: The self-abnegation of Mr. and Mrs. Isidor Straus here shone forth heroically when she promptly and emphatically exclaimed: “No! I will not be separated from my husband; as we have lived, so will we die together;” and when he, too, declined the assistance proffered on my earnest solicitation that, because of his age and helplessness, exception should be made and he be allowed to accompany his wife in the boat. “No!” he said, “I do not wish any distinction in my favor which is not granted to others” They expressed
“Seven on Ship have Wealth,” 1. “Doomed Men Save Women and Smilingly Await Sure Death,” East Oregonian, April 19, 1912, 1.
19 themselves as fully prepared to die, and calmly sat down in steamer chairs on the glassenclosed Deck A, prepared to meet their fate.48
Stories of the couple continued to become part of the front page news when talking about the sinking of the Titanic. An editorial in the Morning Oregonian depicted the Strauss’ as an unselfish couple that decided to stay together as the ship went down instead of trying to get onto a lifeboat. “Heroism, fealty, the oneness of two lives cemented by they love, the hopes and the vicissitudes of the years, stands out in this picture with a tenderness of touch that is at once subtle and sublime.” 49 Other newspapers such as The Oregon City Enterprise gave the impression that the two were not going anywhere without each other. “The two old persons stood calmly waiting. Death was inevitable. They knew it, but they were not dismayed…[as the ship was sinking] Straus bending toward his partner of reclining years. It was an inspiring picture.”50 The Strauss’ story gave the newspapers a story that the public appreciated because it showed that Mr. Straus was a hero to his wife by staying with her until the end. Colonel Archibald Gracie was also recognized as one of the heroes of the night by the newspapers. The Oregon City Enterprise covered the story of how he had to jump off the ship as it was sinking. He was underwater for a great amount of time before he reached the surface and found a raft that many other men tried to get to. “A man whose name I did not learn was struggling toward [the raft]. I cast off and helped him to get into the raft and we then began the work of rescuing others floundering in the water.”51 In his book he did not refer to himself as a hero but a man that was only trying to do his duty. Gracie recognized many heroes the night of the disaster. In his book, he mentions the experience he had with one of the crewmen from the ship giving orders to keep everyone calm. He states: 48
Colonel Archibald Gracie, Titanic: A Survivor’s Story, (Chicago, Illinois: Academy Chicago Publishers 1998), 25. 49 “An Heroic Exodus,” Morning Oregonian, April 26, 1912, 10. 50 “Isidor Straus and Wife Die Together,” Oregon City Enterprise, April 26, 1912, 1. 51 “Band Plays as Ship Goes Down,” Oregon City Enterprise, April 26, 1912, 1.
20 Every man, woman, officer and member of the crew did their full duty without a sign of fear or confusion. Lightoller’s strong and steady voice rang out his orders in clear firm tones, inspiring confidence and obedience. There was not one woman who shed tears or gave any sign of fear or distress. There was not a man at this quarter of the ship who indicated a desire to get into the boats and escape with the women. There was not a member of the crew who shirked, or left his post. The coolness, courage, and sense of duty that I here witnessed made me thankful to God and proud of my Anglo-Saxon race that gave this perfect and superb exhibition of self-control at this hour of severest trial.52 Historians would argue that the night of the sinking was far from “peaceful” and that people did not run for their lives trying to get into the lifeboats. It could be that Gracie was talking about how the first class passengers were acting when the ship first started sinking because later on Gracie mentions that the third class passengers were trying to run to the end of the boat in order to stay on the ship for a long as possible.53 However, he does not indicate which group of people he was referencing in the above quote, if it was part of the upper or lower class. Some newspapers portrayed other people that on board the ship as heroes. In the East Oregonian, there is a small section dedicated to wireless operator, John George Philips. The newspaper briefly mentions, “The Titanic operator, who paid with his life the price of faithfulness to duty. When last seen, Philips was sticking to his key, with the water lapping against his legs, still sending out desperate calls for help, though Captain Smith had told him to save himself.”54 Other crew members that tried to help women and children were considered heroes as well, but did not get as much publicity as first class heroes did. The same argument is made about the steerage class; Marlene Tromp noted: In fact, papers often imagined that ‘Most of the Passengers Were Returning from Pleasure Jaunts in Europe,’ which completely ignores the presence of immigrant steerage passengers among the heroes, the lost, and the rag-tag survivors…First class men, however, had the highest survival rate of any group of men on the ship, and this story that has been told about their heroism can begin to give us some sense of what it meant to be millionaire.55
Gracie, Titanic: A Survivor’s Story, 34. Gracie, Titanic: A Survivor’s Story, 47. 54 “Wireless Man a Hero,” East Oregonian, April 19, 1912, 1. 55 Marlene Tromp, Untold Titanic, chap. 1, section 251. 53
21 Other survivors continued to tell their stories from what they could remember from the night. One of the most famous reports by a first class passenger was the account of Colonel Archibald Gracie. Gracie’s book titled Titanic: A Survivor’s Story gives detailed information about his experience and understanding of what happened the night of the sinking. In the document Gracie mentions the certain events that he encountered while the ship was sinking from a first class male’s perspective. One of his points was no steerage passengers could be seen for a long time until the ship started to sink faster.56 When newspapers addressed Gracie, they gave him the image that he was one of the “sole survivors” of many men that were forced to jump into the freezing water. Women survivors remember Gracie, along with other men, that those men helped the most with the crew in order to help get them on lifeboats doing it in a way that a proper gentleman should help a woman. 57 Steerage men were not the only group to be denied a place on a lifeboat, but all male passengers, including the men in first class. Most of the first class males stayed on the ship and tried to survive in the icy waters, but one man was depicted as a coward for the remainder of his life because he boarded a lifeboat in order to save his own life. The White Star Line’s director Bruce Ismay got onto a lifeboat claiming that there were no women or children present when he got on.58 Ismay partially controlled the Titanic and its speed. He originally wanted the ship to make impressive timing when coming to New York to get there a day early than originally scheduled. When he knew Titanic was not going to make it, he did not want to risk his own life and jumped aboard one of the lifeboats.59 This act created a reason for the press to give him a bad image for all to see. In an editorial in the Morning Oregonian, titled “Ismay’s Self-Indictment,” the editor expresses anger toward Ismay not only because he boarded a lifeboat in order to save his own life, but also “he was the one and only man on board who was responsible for the 56
Gracie, Titanic: A Survivor’s Story, 23. “Band Plays as Ship Goes Down,” Oregon City Enterprise, April 26, 1912, 1. 58 “Inquiry Pressed; Ismay Testifies,” Morning Oregonian, April 20, 1912, 1 and 2. 59 “Inquiry Pressed; Ismay Testifies,” 1 and 2. 57
22 insufficient number of lifeboats to save every passenger and every member of the crew.”60 The writer discussed Ismay’s role and noted there were other first class elites that were like Ismay, but did not try to save themselves and instead helped others. Newspapers from all over the U.S. covered Ismay’s story. The Morning Oregonian had his inquiry as one of the top stories on April 20, 1912 as the front page in the article. Ismay defended himself, by claiming it was the only way that he would have been able to survive. He also stated that there were no women and children around when the crew asked, so he got in.61 Mark Davie includes other newspapers commenting about Ismay’s cowardice: The Morning Chronicle of Halifax, wrote: ‘And J. Bruce Ismay, the man whom a certain class of New York papers prefer to call ‘J. Brute Ismay,’ ‘coward,’ ‘white-livered,’ ‘the man who came home with the women and children. It is he who is the center of attraction…Ismay may have looked like a strong man, but he was a lack luster witness.62 Davie argues that the press was focusing so much on Ismay’s cowardice for not letting other women and children get on the boat before him, that they forgot that he was another person that was on the Titanic when it sank and suffered emotionally from the disaster. Even though he was a first class passenger, he was scared like all of the other people aboard the ship; and only wanted a chance to live. People all over the United States commented on Ismay’s actions, and how he was not fulfilling his duty as being the proper man. Some people voiced their opinions on the acts of Ismay in various editorials in some of the Oregon newspapers. Oregon’s newspaper, the Morning Oregonian included an editorial titled, “Ismay’s Self-Indictment” stated, “Mr. Ismay admitted that he obtained a comfortable cabin on board the Carpathia and remained behind in it. But while he remained behind its locked doors, incommunicado, women and children, weak and
23 suffering from exposure, slept on the cabin floors of the overcrowded vessel.”63 One of the strongest opinions from the Oregon’s editorial was the knowing “it were better to be [Captain] Smith dead than an Ismay alive.”64 As the ship started to sink faster, the crew and passengers were struggling to try and find a way to survive. The water was below freezing and the lifeboats were all out in the sea; some were turned over because of the water coming up onto the top deck of the ship. By this time many people were on deck, creating chaos that was originally trying to be prevented. Newspaper coverage covered this part of the story of the sinking in different ways. Some addressed the classes and how they tried to be saved, and the press also covered the heroes of the night. Another theme was the question of whether things were handled correctly the night of the sinking and if disaster could have been avoided if it were all handled a different way. There is no specific evidence in that the third class were being treated poorly their entire time while on the ship because most of the third class survivors admit that while on the ship, they enjoyed traveling on the ship to come to America. However, on the night of the sinking, some admit that they were treated differently and unfairly when they were forced to stay below deck for a certain amount of time. They fought their way out of the bottom of the ship, most by breaking the gates that separated them from the upper classes. When steerage passengers finally broke away, sources show that the events got more chaotic because the ship was sinking faster and the lifeboats were being filled up.65 Gracie admits that one of the crewmen drew a gun in order to keep some of the steerage back from jumping into the lifeboats. “Men from the steerage rushed the boat. ‘Rush’ is the word he used, meaning they got in without his permission. He drew his pistol and ordered them out, threatening to shoot if they attempted to enter the boat again.”66 The media created the impression that since the steerage rushed to find lifeboats, they were the reason 63
24 why certain events, like guns being drawn, became more chaotic. When the media gave the impression that steerage men were the cause for chaos during the sinking, it showed the public that they were incapable for being civilized because of their actions. One of the questions that a newspaper addressed is if the Titanic and other steamships had the correct amount of lifeboats on board the ship and whether or not they were filled properly. Lifeboats were not filled to their full capacity which caused an issue that questioned whether more lives could have been saved. A day after the sinking, The Daily Capital Journal addressed the fact that it was known that the Titanic had the required amount of lifeboats on board, but others argued that because Titanic was perceived as the most luxurious ship in the world, the lifeboats took up too much space on deck and extra lifeboats were not needed. The Daily Capital Journal, questioned whether safety was more important than luxury on a ship. The newspaper reported Congressman Alexander of Missouri stating his opinion about the requirement of lifeboats on a steamer: “The trouble, evidently, is that the lifeboats occupy too much room. The steamers are chasing the almighty dollar. They must furnish absolute protection for everyone, no matter how crowded the liner is.”67 Later, the newspaper article argues why there were not as many lifeboats on a ship, and what the laws require all ships to follow. Supervising Inspector Ohler of the steamboat inspection service: “After vessels reach a certain size they are equipped with lifeboats according to tonnage, and not according to the number of passengers. As a rule the great liners are not equipped with enough lifeboats to save the passengers, though they usually have sufficient life preservers.”68 The topic of the amount of lifeboats on the Titanic continued through many articles; most of them stated that there were not enough for the amount of people on board.69 The rule of the amount of lifeboats needed to be carried on a ship is also addressed by Bruce Ismay in his inquiry. In his testimony he goes over what the lifeboats were originally used 67
25 for. “The lifeboat requirements are based on the tonnage of the ship. The Titanic had more boats than were necessary by the Board of Trade regulations…We carried lifeboats because we might have to use them to pick up a crew from another ship. Or landing passengers, in the case of the ship going ashore. Or if the passengers had to leave the ship on account of fire.”70 The United States held a court hearing, and found that there was the required amount of lifeboats on the Titanic, as Ismay had said. But the British inquires stated that the law was correct, but the ship should have had more lifeboats based on the amount of people on board: When naval architects have devised practical mean for rendering ships unsinkable, the question of boat accommodation may have to be reconsidered, but until that time arrives, boat accommodation should, where practicable, be carried for all on board…It has never been enforced in there mercantile marine of Great Britain, nor, in that of any foreign nation…As far as foreign-going passenger and emigrant steamships are concerned, I am of opinion that, unless justification be shown for deviating from this course, such ships should carry boats or rafts for all on board.71 A week after the sinking, the press was still addressing the question of whether or not the safety standards were followed correctly. Editorials from people in the United States expressed their concern with how things were handled. Various writers had their own opinions of what happened the night of the sinking, and the treatment of the people on board. The Morning Oregon had an editorial section titled “Afterthoughts on the Titanic.” The article mentioned that there were many warnings from other vessels that passed through the “iceberg alley” and that the Titanic should have avoided the area. The editor noted that the crew was aware of the icebergs but continued to follow the captain’s orders of going full speed through the iceberg alley. As a result, crewmen should not be considered to be at fault for the collision with the iceberg because they had no choice but to follow the Captain’s orders.72 The editors of the Morning Oregonian in “Safety Upon the Ocean,” discussed why it was dangerous for the company to advertise the ship as being called “unsinkable.” The editor believed people of the time did not want to have to worry about safety standards, but about the 70
Compton, Titanic on Trial, part 1, section 337. Compton, Titanic on Trial, part 2, section 3239 and 3247. 72 “Afterthoughts on the Titanic,” Morning Oregonian, April 20, 1912, 10. 71
26 luxury passengers would have when on the ship. People did not think twice about safety on a ship that was given the title of “the unsinkable.”73 This was a problem for the passengers on the ship because they were under the impression that the ship could not sink. For the editor, there should not have been a question of whether the ship really was unsinkable or not.74 The latest technology of shipbuilding was at one of the highest points at the time. The media gave the name of the ship being unsinkable because of the technology that was created by Thomas Andrews. In the British inquiry went into more arguments of why the lifeboats were being loaded by half. One of the theories that they present is that many people were unwilling to leave the ship, “the women feared to get into the boats. Many people thought that the risk in the ship was less than the risk in the boats.”75 The blame should not be on the crew because of the circumstances of the speed that the ship was sinking which gave them less time to load people into boats. They did not have a planned procedure of how things would be handled if the ship were to sink because it was considered “unsinkable.” In the long run of the British inquiries arguments, they believe that if the boats were filled to their capacity, there would have been more survivors and less of a tragic loss of life.76 There is no correct way of looking at how the crew handled boarding passengers on the boats because it was an event that no one saw coming. The safety aspect on the Titanic was questioned in many different ways because answers of what happened were needed. Some of the newspaper articles that were released in the United States claimed that there was chaos when trying to get people to board the lifeboats. This raised awareness to whether this was a factor in if it was the correct way to handle things that night. Articles titled, “Men in 1st and 2nd Cabins Calm; Italians Shot to Keep Order.’ Also mentioned in the Tribune, that “Some of the passengers fought with such desperation to get into the lifeboats that the officers shot them, and their bodies fell into the ocean…the shooting was made
“Safety Upon the Ocean,” Morning Oregonian, April 24, 1912, 10. “Safety Upon the Ocean,” 10. 75 Compton, Titanic on Trial, part 2, section 3278. 76 Compton, Titanic on Trial, part 2, section 3294. 74
27 necessary.” 77 This ties into the fact of who was considered civilized and who was not. The media left the impression on many people that because guns were drawn around the time that third class reached the top deck, that they were the ones that caused the chaos. It is hard to interpret because other accounts said that there was no shooting while people were trying to get into the boats, but some historians agree that in order to keep the chaos down, the crewmen had to take control of the situation.78 Headlines included details about whether or not a man was calm during the event. Depending on which newspaper is addressing the topic, it is apparent that the editor compared the upper and lower class men in how civilized they seemed. It was considered a man’s duty to stay calm in a difficult situation. First class men, aside from Bruce Ismay, were able to get the title as being a hero for staying on the ship as long as possible to help others board onto lifeboats. When newspaper articles covered, in which there were very few articles, of what was remembered about the steerage men passengers was that they tried to board the lifeboats pushing women out of the way.79 This led to the belief that the lower class was considered uncivilized and why officers pulled out their revolvers to try and scare the men away from boarding the lifeboats. Other newspapers do not include the events that include any part of the lower class simply because they were not considered a big part of society as how Astor, Butt, or Straus was. The Titanic was called the unsinkable because it utilized the latest technology in ship building. This was the first luxurious ships of its time where people of all three classes could board and either enjoy for entertainment purposes, or immigrate to America to start a new life. When the tragedy happened, the way safety procedures were handled was questioned; unsafe conditions regarded the treatment between classes and whether or not the situation was handled as safely as possible. Many of the first class men were considered heroic because of the duties they did; men like Colonel Archibald Gracie, Major Archibald Butt, and John Jacob Astor. The 77
Ken Rossignol, Titanic 1912, chap. 7, para. 13. Wade, The Titanic: End of a Dream, 66. 79 Ken Rossignol, Titanic 1912, chap. 7, para. 23. 78
28 newspaper coverage gave this impression of the men in order to show society that these men went down with the ship with honor and integrity. Stories in the newspapers that explained what happened to Mr. and Mrs. Straus gave the impression of how desperate things were in order to get a spot on a lifeboat. Historical analyses have focused on the cause of the collision as well as the factors that influenced the subsequent safety of the passengers and crew. Also trying to put blame on someone was harder for the society to do because most of the men that created the Titanic perished. Pointing the finger at Bruce Ismay was the closest thing to blaming someone for the accident. Years later, historians learned that Ismay was part of the blame for why the ship was going full speed without noting the warnings of the icebergs. The belief that things should have been handled differently is true in that many more lives could have been saved. The question of if there were enough lifeboats for people on board and whether all the people on the ship had a fair chance of surviving the accident is not easy to determine because the events that happened were hard to accept. Steerage were forced to stay in their cabins by having the gates that connected them to the upper cabins were shut. Inquiries show that not all of the steerage passengers were treated poorly the night of the sinking. Safety standards became questioned when the boats were not being filled to their capacity, and some men being let on when there was no women or children present. Witness accounts from all three classes show the difference in treatment and safety of the passengers. Realization that the ship would sink became an unbelievable event that made passengers worry for their lives, but also brought out some heroes to help others. Many factors come into play when learning about the tragedy of the sinking of the Titanic; a ship that was considered to be unsinkable and a luxurious liner that would bring people from one side of the world to the other. The class system did have some of the key aspects of who would be saved and remembered. Even though many the famous first class males did not survive the sinking, they were given the title of a hero because they helped others get onto a
29 lifeboat. Through newspaper articles covering the event, there were big announcements of the men that helped other people and give the idea that those men should be remembered. These men made headlines in articles that proved their manliness in society. Newspapers covering the first class men as heroes were viewed by society as men that fulfilled their duty for being a man. In a time of tragedy, the men stepped forward, without having being asked to, and helped the women and children board the lifeboats and still considered a gentleman.
Primary, Newspapers: “1,492 Persons Believed Lost on Sunken Ship Titanic.” “Afterthoughts on the Titanic.” “American Heroes.” “An Heroic Exodus.” “Band Plays as Ship Goes Down.” “Butt and Astor Die Like Soldiers.” “Doomed Men Save Women and Smilingly Await Sure Death.” “Inquiry Pressed; Ismay Testifies.” “Isidor Straus and Wife Die Together.” “Ismay’s Self-Indictment.” “No Steamer Carries Enough.” “Only 886 Saved.” “Safety Upon the Ocean.” “Seven on Ship have Wealth 420 Millions.” “Wireless Man a Hero.” Other Primary Sources: Compton, Nic. Titanic on Trial: The Survivors’ Story from their Testimonies at the 1912 Inquiries. London, Berlin, New York, Sydney: Bloomsbury 2012. Kindle Edition. Dodge, Washington. Eyewitness Account of the Sinking of the Titanic. Manuscript. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, Gilder Lehrman Collection. http://www.scribd.com/doc/26776734/Titanic-survivor-Washington-Dodge-recounts-thesinking#fullscreen. (Accessed on April 14, 2014). Gracie, Colonel Archibald. Titanic: A Survivor’s Story. Chicago, Illinois: Academy Chicago Publishers. 1998.
31 Molony, Senan. Faces of the Titanic: Daniel Buckley was Saved After a Woman Hid Him in a Lifeboat. Irish Central. 14 April 2012. http://www.irishcentral.com/news/faces-of-the-titanicdaniel-buckley-was-saved-after-a-women-hid-him-in-a-life-boat-147442895-237441561.html.
Secondary: Biel, Steven. Down With the Old Canoe: A Cultural History of the Titanic Disaster. New York and London: W.W. Norton and Company. 1996. Davenport-Hines, R. P. T. Voyagers of the Titanic: passengers, sailors, shipbuilders, aristocrats, and the worlds they came from. New York: William Morrow. 2012. Davie, Michael. Titanic: The Death and Life of a Legend. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1987. Davis, Robert G. “Understanding Manhood in America: The Elusive Quest for the Ideal in Masculinity.” Heredom 10 2002. http://18.104.22.168/web/heredom-files/volume10/davis.pdf. Merideth, Lee W. Titanic Names: A Complete List of the Passengers and Crew. California: Rocklin Press, 2007. Second Edition. Painter, Nell Irvin. Standing at Armageddon: The United States 1877-1919. New York and London: W.W. Norton and Company, 1987. Rossignol, Ken. Titanic 1912. Privateer Clause Publishing Co 2012. Kindle Edition. Tromp, Marlene. Untold Titanic: The True Story of Life, Death, and Justice. Kindle Edition. Wade, Wyn Craig. The Titanic: End of a Dream. New York: Penguin Group. 1979. Welter, Christopher G. Voices Cast Upon the Sea: Minnesota’s Titanic Passengers. Minnesota History. Vol. 60, No. 7: Fall 2007. JSTOR.
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Apr 1, 2012 - governance has been introduced as a moderating variable of R&D input and corporate performance. However, to the best of our knowledge the more recent studies were mainly based on firm data in the US and UK. So far, there has been no inv